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Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim
Assalaamu Alaikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakaatuh
Pt.1: The Noble Quran -- The Collection & Writing of the Quran
There are three phases with respect to the collection and writing of the Qur`aan into one book.
Phase One: was during the lifetime of the Prophet (sallaAllahu alaihi wa sallaam) and they relied mostly upon memorization rather than writing. During this time there were seventy companions from the tribe of Banee Saleem; known as "the Reciters" (due to their memorization of the Qur`aan. They were murdered at a well called Ma`oonah. There were many other companions who memorized the Qur`aan among them; the four rightly guided caliphate.
Phase Two: was during the leadership of Abu Bakr (radiAllahu anhu) in the twelfth year after the Hijrah. The reason for writing the Quraan at this time was because many of those who memorized the Quran were killed during the incident at al-Yamaamah (while fighting against Musaylimah the Liar who claimed to be a prophet). So Abu Bakr ordered that the Qur`aan be collected together so that its verses would not be lost.
Phase Three: was during the time of the leader of the believers, Uthmaan ibn Affan (radiAllahu anhu), in the twenty-fifth year after hijrah. The cause of this collection and writing was that the people began differing and disagreeing regarding the correct recitation. They disputed based upon differences in the written portions that many of the companions (radiAllahu anhum) possessed. Uthmaan, fearing that trials and tribulations would result, ordered that all the various portions were to be collected and written into one single copy in order to prevent the people from further differing and disgreement over the book of Allah, thus causing their unity to split.
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